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NOTE: The entire files is essentially SPOILERS !!!! if you haven't read an author, or the particular work, and you want that "first time" experience, close this file, and go look at ["Xlit" (art-is)] We appologise for the inconvenience. See also: [SF Film] (major essays; i hope ;) [SF Alterity] [SF index] [SF General] [SF Mechanics] [SF Writing] [SF Effects] [SF Elements] [SF FUTURUISM] **MAIN PAGE** -^_6 [LITERATURE INDEX] [The ALT LIST!] (ah, those literary weirdos!) [terms] (index of indexes)

SF List

[Show Asimov Cartoon] THE LIST *** In progress; "completed" so far: Dick, Huxley, Le Guin) Also refer to: [sf-general] (which forms a sort of "topics" list for sf) {And the editors} - brave souls they! On this page: {Douglas Noel Adams: The Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy} {Asimov: Foundation} {Aldriss: Cryptozoic} {Ballard:} {Frank L. Baum: Adventures in Oz} {Lloyd Biggle: The Light That Never Was} {Clarke:} {Delany: Einstein Intersection} {Dick: Man in the High Castle} {Dick: Blade Runner} {Dickson: The Alien Way} {Huxley: Brave New World} {Washington Irving} (Rip Van Winkle) {Le Guin: The Left Hand of Darkness} {Stanislov Lem: Solaris & The Cyberiad} (Robot Stories) {Niven & Pournell: Mote in God's Eye/The Gripping Hand} {And they walked like men... Clifford D. Simak} {Cordwainer Smith: The Instrumentatlity of Man} {Robert Louis Stevenson} {Jonathon Swift} (Guliver's Travels) {Jules Verne} {H.G. Wells} {Back to the TOP of this Page}

And the editors

- brave souls they! Hugo John Campbell H.G. Gold Judith Merril Sam Moskowitz hmmm, need to scare up some of their stuff and of course that most skaliwaginous of all: Harlan Ellison - who has (time and time again) shown us the way: "if you are doing what everyone else is doing, then you are doing nothing new" - the poet 't' REPENT, HARLAN WHILE YOU STILL HAVE TIME!!! (Oahu Island Daylight Savings time of course) -[
John Campbell award]- -^_6

Douglas Noel Adams: The H2G2

(The Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy) NEXT: Aldris: "Cryptozoic". {
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Asimov: Foundation

NEXT: Aldris: "Cryptozoic". {
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Frank L. Baum

(Adventures in Oz)


Babes in Toyland inspired by Oz tale...]- Victor Herbert was born on February 1, 1859 in Dublin, Ireland. He studied music in Germany, where he became a cellist and composer for the court in Stuttgart and joined the faculty of the Stuttgart Conservatory of Music. In 1886, he and his wife, opera singer Therese Foerster, immigrated to New York where they worked for the Metropolitan Opera and became active in the musical life of the city. Herbert was most famous as a composer of light operetta. His best known remains "Babes in Toyland", which opened in 1903, a fantasy inspired by Frank L. Baum's popular The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. For the complete text, photos, and links, go to -[memory.loc.gov]- NEXT: Biggle: The Light That Never Was. {Back to the TOP of this page}

Loyd Biggle: The Light That Never Was

NEXT: Clarke: 2001: A Space Odyssey. {
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Clarke: 2001 - A Space Odyssey

NEXT: Delany: The Einstein Intersection {
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Delany: The Einstein Inersection

NEXT: Dick: The Man in the High Castle. {
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Philip K. Dick: The Man in the High Castle

NEXT: Dick: Bladerunner/ {
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Philip K. Dick: Bladerunner

Having "triumphed" with the SF film "Alien", Riddley Scott goes on to take on "Do Andorids Dream of Electric Sheep". Technically speaking, "Alien" was just another horor genre story wrapped up in a nice warmy, fuzzy SF blanket, and of course it's all just the same old "Excorist" with music timed to the human heart-beat. Anyway, onward to conqure Dick! Judged on its on, "Bladerunner" is an excellent action/ adventure film. It contains more intellectual content than many of the subsequent films profered in the "SF" vein. It maintained at least some of the ambiguity present in the original novel; some, but not much. Thus, Bladerunner -- (name "borrowed" from a totally un-related story by (as I recall) Lester del Rey) rode the anti-hero/dystopic view of the future. In the process Dick's masterpiece "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep" was simply chaff for the hollywood mill. Oddly enough, even Sobchack mis-judges the FILM as being original, when in fact much of the "look" was extracted from the novel. For example, [SOBCHACK, 1987; revised edition], P.262 "The 'excess scenography' of Blade Runner, for for example, is more than mere background. As Bart Mills says: 'The setting *is* the film'. An abundance of things to look at serves to inflate the value of space that contains them, and emphasizes a particular kind of desnsity and texture. ..." In point of fact, the environment envisioned in the novel is that much of the human race has died out, or is dieing out -- the alternative to slow death is to go offworld. Thus, the large abundance of abandonded buildings of which people dredge throught looking for the still usable. One of the *primary* points of the novel is the concept of gubble/gubbish/kibble (mertz, the refuse of the destroyed society). This "look and feel" in the novel is *of course* carried over into the film by Lawrence G. Paull (production designer), Syd Mead (visual consultant), and Ridley Scott (director) -- that's what they got for the "production rights": The ability to strip-mine the work of literature and plop it down into a movie roughly based on Dick's ideas. The sensitivity of the novel is barely carried into the film. This could possibly be the necessities of BOX OFFICE rather than some lack of aesthetic understanding on the part of Paull/Mead/Scott -- prob v. likely: In the end materialism must rule us all. Reagardless, this trend continues to date with almost all adaptations of SF novels into SF film -- the most dazling, least intellectual/spritual/meaningful ideas are discarded, and the poor saps (Dick's term for T.C. Mits (The Celebrated Man in the Street; refer to Lilian Liber's "The Education of T.C. Mits")) eat it up *at* the boxoffice. A comment ?author? was that modern film treats us all like children. The classic "build up the need for revenge, then express the pent up frustration by that final, v. violent "pay-back" scene" is the only liturgy that film producers seem to know. Indeed as Karl Wessel put it in "Alien Encounters: SF and the Mysteriusm in 2001, Solaris, and Contact", (Pp.181-209, in "The Science Fiction Film Reader, ed. by Gregg Rickman, LCCN PN'1995.9'.S26'R53'2004, ISBN 0.87910.944.7 (Limelight, New York, 2004).
"Since the release of 2001 in 1968, the alien first contact theme has fallen upon hard times. Cynical calculations based on bottom-line market research, throught-less deendence on special effects, appeals to narcisstic power fantasies, intellectual laziness, and simple ignorance have been the order to the day. In the interim, just three films that attempt to deal with the theme of transcendence have risen above this un-distinguished crown. P.192 [he is refering to "Contact", "Solaris", and "Pi" -- notably by two of the greatest thinkers of our age, and obviously by Aranofsky/Gillete who have a completely different view of the "intellectual lamb" at the mercy of the captitialist/spirtualistic wolves. [Note 33] Needless to say, the complexity of Dick's novel is completely lost in the film; only hints remain to be tasted lightly. Among the most attrocious are: Rick's love of Opera, and the fact that he must "retire" Luba Loft (the anderoid opera singer) -- of course she ends up as a stripper "taking pleasure from the snake". The chuckle-head (wonderfully rendered by ?actor?) loses all of the need for self agrandisement and that by hanging out with androids he can at the same time feel important, superior, and accepted. He's pretty much a dupe in the film. Thus, the social comentary about "lower class" people hanging out with a dominant gang of usually perceived lower class people. (Recall that much of Dick's writing dealt with how blacks (still refered to as "Negroes" at that time), were perceived by whites. I've often seen the view of the androids as slaves (blacks) and the Chuckle-head (white) hanging with his *social* inferiors simply to have *some* companionship. The last instance where the Nexus+ "becomes human" and in so doing, dies. Is more directly taken from Dick's "We can make you" and other works. The real conflict comes from when Rick must retire the android that looks like Ms. Rosen. And the whole pscho-sexual conflict of *that* chapter (of which Phil wrote extensively at the time the film was being made), was of course too complex for the infantile minds of the male-dominated penis-less-film market. ("We wouldn't want anyone to get hurt" as "The Shoveler" sez in "Mystery Men"). Not since Rauschlaaum ?sp? by Ibsen, has there been so much suppressed sexual tension; of course, this topic is exquistely explored in Le Guin's "Left Hand of Darkness". The idea of the "shadow" police department. This of course a key element in Dick's paranoid view of the world or at least U.S. politics. And don't *even* get me started about the total absence of Mercerism! Sheesh. NEXT: Dickson: The Alien Way {Back to the TOP of this page} NOTES: This section only. [33] A brief note on the power-struggle in "Pi". At first we might be tempted to distinguish between the *goal* of the wall-street investors and the mysterious Jewish cult. In reality, they have the same goal: Power. That "Max" becomes empowered with this knowledge, and then becomes the target of these two groups and their "success" in their respective realms is clear. However, if we view the two groups from the point of view of what they hope to achieve, it becomes clear (i would say) that even the Jewish cult sees things in terms of material gain. It gives them the chance to redeem themselves via this *sacred* number. Not that they are motivated to cleanse their tarnished souls by doing good deeds, or otherwise aleviating the ills of the world. And it goes without saying that the investor types are out only to make money. Alone, "Max" has the pureist vision: The pursuit of pure knowledge. The little girl ??character-name?? also, has this child-like vision probably seeing in Max a curiosity just like her calculator: "How does it/he do that?" This (i would say) is a to parallel Max's own naievte in dealing with both the investors and the Jewish mystics. "Lenny" of course plays him perfectly preying upon "Max's" abandonment of his faith -- a faith that he judges is no longer needed now that his new "relgion" is the pursuit of absolute knowledge; ie, "finding" pi. {Back to the TEXT} NEXT: Dickson: The Alien Way {Back to the TOP of this page}

Gordon R. Dickson: The Alien Way

See also: [
SF (general) "Alien"] NEXT: Huxley: Brave New World. {Back to the TOP of this page}

Adlrous Huxley: Brave New World

See also: [
Evolution} (sf-general) and esp: [Fredric Jameson] (LIT: Postmodernism & Cosumer Society [Brands/Branding] (Myth: Story of Culture) All page numbers refer to Harper, Row & Co, Perinial Edition. 1969 edition , paperback, P-3095. In this section: {Color Coding} {Castes} {Infants} {Challenges to the World of BNW} {Characters}

Color Coding

As per [P.18] Alpha - grey Beta Gamma - Green Delta - khaki Epsilons - black Obviously the colors are chosen to reflect the level of sophistication of the person's caste. Clearly black (epsilon) is to keep the epsilons as docile as possible; ie, nothing stimulating. I would guess that "grey" was chosen to reflect "the man in the grey flannel suit" (which was probably *just* starting to emerge at that time; the captains of industry, presidents and such of course all wore black suits). {
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The Caste System






These are essentially the "under-people" {
Underpeople in SMITH} BEGIN BLOCK QUOTE Before Bernard could answer, the lift came to a stand-still. "Roof!" called a creaking voice. The liftman was a small simian creature, dressed in the black tunic of Epsilon-Minus Semi-Moron. "Roof!" He flung open the gates. The warm glory of afternoon sunlight made him start and blink his eyes. "Oh, roof!" he repeated in a voice of rapture. He was as though suddenly and joyfully awakened from a dark annihilating stupor. "Roof!" He smiled up with a king od doggily expectant adoration into the faces of his passengers. Talking and laughing together, they stepped out into the light. The liftman looked after them. "Roof?" he said once more, questioningly. Then a bell rang, and from the ceiling of the lift a loud speaker began, very softly and yet very imperiously, to issue its commands. "Go down", it said, "go down. Floor Eighteen. Go down, go down. Floor Eighteen. Go down, go..." The liftman slammed the gates, touched a button and instantly dropped back into the droning twilight of the well, the twilight of his own habitual stupor. -- P. 39. END BLOCK QUOTE NEXT: Le Guin. Part of this is clearly the concept of servants just for the sake of having servants. Surely if the lift can be automated, there is in fact no reason to have a "lift man". I would say that part of this is to emphasize the role of blacks as servants (if not in England, then certainly in the United States; ca1932).


"There is nothing innocuous left. The little pleasures, expressions of life that seemed exempt from the responsibilites of thought, not only have an element of deviant silliness, of callous refusal to see, but directly serve their diametrical opposite. -- Theodore Adorno, Minima Moralia as quoted in: REF: "The Mouse that Roared: Disney and the End of Innocence", by Henry A. Giroux, LCCN PN'1999.W27'G57'1999, ISBN 0.8476.9109.8 (Rowman, Cumnor Hill, Eng, 1999) The idea of "turning us all into infants" is scarily reflected by THE MOUSE: BEGIN BLOCK QUOTE "The ensemble of [the Disney] theme parks, including those opened in Tokyo and Paris iin 1983 and 1992, are central to Disney's homage to white, middle-class, post-war America. The parks are a blend of "Taylorized fun"
[????], patriotic populism, and consumerism dressed up as a childhood fantasy. [LOCAL NOTE 46: The term "Taylorized fun" is taken from Sorkin "See you in Disneyland", P.223. ????ref????] As Steven Watts rightly argues, Disneyland in particular, "can be seen as quint-essential expression of the Disney culture industry machine in the post-war era." [LOCAL NOTE 47: Watts: "Magic Kingdom", P.391] While the parks ofer variations in place and purpose, they share a number of assumptions that are essential to Disney's conservative world-view. Far from representing a benign cultureal force, Disney's theme parks offer pre-packaged, sanitised versions of America's past, place a strong emphasis on the virtues of the individual as an essentially consuming subject, transform the work of production into the production of play, and ignroe the exclusionary dynamcis of class and race that permeat Disney culture. -- P.39 [The New York City-ier, Elayne Rapping, a cultural critic made a visit to 1990's] expressed shock on finding herself transported into a world that was totally *other* but at the same time 'the most mundanely quint-essential of American landscapes. [LOCAL NOTE 42: Elayne Rapping, "A Bad Ride at Disney World", Progressive (Nov 1995), P.36] .. [in] an enviroment entirely pre-packaged and controlled. Shuffled through transportation systems with the ut-most efficiency, met by an army of smiling, well-mannered cast memebers, and presented with an array of planned tours, she found herself in a **space** [emph mine] where "nothing could possibly go wrong because nothing could possibly happen". As a simulacrum of society, purged of conflicts, differences, and **complexity** [emph mine], Disney World eleiminaes the need for the public to utilze any of theose compacities that mark them as social agents. Instead, it positions them within a cultural landscape, as Rapping points out, "in which no trace of anything un-commodified, non-simulated, non-regulated, non-smiley-faced, is visible or reachable". And yet it is precisely this editing-out of conflict, this concern with control, this over-determined emphasis on the familiar and the uniform that appeals to the white, middle class families that make up most of the visitors to Disney World". -- P.40 [Frank: And in keeping with the use of RADIO's in BNW ...] Michael Eisner's rational for Radio Disney and its intrusion into Saturday-morning chldren's programming is utterly predictable: "Radio Disney, our new radio network, is thriving on 13 ABC-owned radio stations across the country. By the way, I love Radio Disney. It plays on 710 AM here in LA, and I listen to it all the time. I feel a little silly because we advertise it as radio for kids. What can i do? I like the music! Maybe I need grandchildren! Breck ... Eric ... (Anders, you're too young) .. do you hear that??" Maybe Eisner's commentary wouldn't be subject to the charger of dis-ingenous-ness if it didn't appear in a report to Disney shareholders, a report that in its over-bearing emphasis on profit margins and expansion belies Disney's attempt to appear un-interested in the bototm line. Or [P.33/34] maybe Eisner truly believes that there is nothing wrong with making Disney cultuer an advertisement for America itself, a model for a corporate version of utopia aimed at creating a Disney citizenry ready and willing to purchase Disney's packaged version of history, fantasy, and the **future**. [emph mine] -- P.34. END BLOCK QUOTE This instance of "being like an infant" is again emphasised when Lenina and Bernard visit the Primitive Reservation". First there is the "encounter" with the Native Dance, the rhthym of which is: "Orgy-porgy," she whispered to herself. These drums beat out just the same rhythms. -- P.75. ... [the natives begin singing] "It reminds me of a lower-caste Community Sing", she told Bernard. But a little later it was reminder her a good deal less of that in-nocuous funtion. For suddenly there had swarmed up from those round chambers under-ground a ghastly toop of monsters. Hideously masked or painted out of all semblance of humanity, [emph mine] they had tramped out a strange limping dance round the square; roudn and again round, signing as they went, round and round -- each time a little faster. Pp.74-75. Note the clear use of her first observing that the dance reminded here of their own primitive and caste which was *designed* "out of all semblance of humanity", and then the further re-inforcement of the analogue in "strange limping dance", thus refering to the physical de-habilitation of the epsilons. I think there are two possible *intentions* here by Huxley: (1) That "without" knowing it, the programming and design (by THE STATE) of the "orgy-porgy" harkens back to this primitiveness; possibly Jungian implication of the collective sub-conscious. That is the scientists who "designed" the orgy porgy did so, not realising that they are drawing upon this commonality of all humans. We note that the *designers* (Alpha+'s) are themselves the least modified (indeed as pointed out with the conversation between Bernard and the Director (P.65) "Alphas are conditioned that they do not have to be infantile in their emotional behaviour. But, that is all the more reason for their making a special effort to conform." Actually, i would say that they are not "conditioned so that", but rather that they are in fact NOT conditioned at all -- or at least only moderately so. Thus, it is at least arguable that the alpha+'s that designed the orgy-porgy without being aware of it, were tap-ing into the common primitive subconscious of the human race; ie, the "id" at the very least. (2) On the other hand, either Huxley is simply using a parallel device here (again with the "intentionalist falacy"), to draw the parallels between this *intense* dance, and as Lenina sees it sharing nothing in common with that *in-nocous* activity. Alternatively, Huxley may have very consciously (being after all *Huxley*) quite aware of the making that connection between the Freudian "id", Jungian "un-consicousness" and expressing that as a direct ane *intentional* connection between the primitive *orgy-porgy* and the *dance music*, and then between the "lower caste group sing" and the "wild dance". Of course Lenina (because of her programming) can never understand that the lower caste sing is anything but in-nocuous. Next: Chalenges to the World of BNW.

Challenges to the World of BNW

As with all *absolute* systems, there is the question of what are the threats -- or the "challenges". That is where are the boundaries of weakness, indeed what the weaknesses of the primary strengths of the system -- taking a page from Machivelli. After the Savage John is brought back to the London central office, it is apparent that no realises the "danger" to the system that John reprsents. Indeed, "The controller skipped the next sentences [on John's view of the soul] and was just about to turn the page in search of something more interestingly concrete, when his eye was caught by a series quite extraordinary phrases. '... though I must admit", he read, 'that I agree with the Savage in finding civilized inantility too easy or, as he puts it, not expensive enough; and would like to take this opportunity of drawing your fordship's attention to...' "Mustapha Mond's anger [from the fact that Bernard was so dainty to think that he might offend the World Controller, and so uses 'M-----' instead of spelling out the ofensive word Mother], gave place almost at once to mirth. The idea of this creature [Bernard] solemnly lecturing him -- him -- about the social order was rally too outrageous. The man must have gone mad. 'I ought to give him a lesson', he said to himself; then threw back his head and laughed aloud. For the moment, at any rate, the lesson would not be given." -- Pp.106-107, Chapter 11. This is key in that due to the hierarchical view, Mustapha must necessarily consider himself superior to anyone else other than a world leader -- he's *designed* that way; and, especially to an accident like "Bernard". This also, is one of the dangers of "believing in the system of belief" that they have *the* perfect society. It is Mustapha's un-conscious rejection of the "radically new" ideas of John (the soul, his oppinions, in general) as nothing but the ramblings of a throw-back and thus purely ludicrous. This point is crucial in understanding how dangerous John is to *the system* -- he has none of their suppositions, indeed, he has none of their programming what-so-evev. Indeed (apparently un-beknownst to them), he possess a training in Shakespear -- arguably one of the fore-most observer's of human nature. Thus, making John if nothing else something of a totally alien creature: A visitor to the Brave New World, whose "field training" includes Shakespear as b/g for his "first contact mission". All of this goes back to the concept of revolution in Larry Niven's "Tourist" ??title? (later expanded into the novel "World out of Joint/Time???title??), where --- title??? Peersa for the state (the computerised version of the "controller") realises that the pilot that they were training for ferrying planetary probes out to the stars, and then has hijacked the ship, and plans to return back to Earth -- how dangerous he might be to "the state". The idea being that systems like "the state" become stagnant, and thus vulnerable to invasion from the outside. The conclusion being drawn as an explanation for the fall of empires of the past. Next: The characters of BNW. {
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Bernard Marx (even at an early stage) is protrayed as the less-than perfect character, and as such the most human; ie, human as we would recognise it. Oddly in parallel to the pathetic
Lift Man, he too is struck by the simple beauty of the sun-light/view at the top of the building. The next sentence is key to understanding the *conditioning* "Isn't it beautiful!" His [Bernard's] voice trembled a little. She smiles at him with an expression of the most sympathetic understanding. "Simply perfect for Obstacle Golf", she answered rapturously. "And now I must fly, Bernard. ..." -- P.40. They both are programmed (probably via the flowers) to view light and color as happy things. But Lenina's view is still tied to "the proper behaviour" model. She interprets the sun-light in terms of what Alphas should be doing, not in the particular experience of the sunlight as pure experinence. That is, interpreted *through* their programmed behaviours, rather than interpreted as a simple and un-mediated experience. Later (after his out-burst against Henry, and his "seeing through" all of the programming; well, much of it). He is with Helmholtz Watson (Pp.45-47), and he expresses this "wanting something more"; ie, to make some deeper contribution than the trite little "piercing phrases" (P. 46). At the end of the chapter (P.47): "Helmholtz Watson listened with a certain sense of discomfort. "Poor Little Berard!" he said to himself. But at the same time, he felt rather ashamed for his friend. He wished Bernard would show a little more pride." This goes back to Helmholtz being so immersed in *the system* -- he has benefitted from it greatly. And now of course, that constant level of *sameness* is beginning to weigh on him. I don't think this is Huxley as cautionary tale-teller, i think it's rather more "too much of a good thing". In fact, this goes back to the (i assume) Controller's (Mustapha Mond), P.37: "Now -- such progress -- the old men work, the old men copulate, the old men have not time, no leisure from pleasure, not a moment to sit down and think -- or if ever by some unlucky chance such a crevice of time should yawn in the solid substance of their distractions, there is always soma, half a gram for a half-holiday, a gramme for a week-end, two grams for a trip to th gorgeous East, three for a dark eternity on the moon; returning whnce they find themselves on the other side of the crevice, safe on the solid ground of daily labour and distraction, scamperinty from feely to feely, from girl to pneumatic girl, from Electomagetic Golf course, to..." This is the ghost that haunts Helmholtz: Due to his advanced mind, the normal pleasures are growing thin; satiated in the same way that the programming is supposed to drill things into everyone, the repeated experience is now perceived as just that -- mindless repetition. This too is what Bernard already sees: Taking everything for granted, but pretending like its all unique and different. He sees them as choosing girls like so much meat -- denying them (and themselves) any kind of uniqueness. Thus, the experiences become generic. This leads of course to the need for the *new* feelies. And of course, the soma which skips them over the abysis of free time. From even this stronghold the unlucky Rip was at length routed by his termagant wife, who would suddenly break in upon the tranquillity of the assemblage and call the members all to naught; nor was that august personage, Nicholas Vedder himself, sacred from the daring tongue of this terrible virago, who charged him outright with encouraging her husband in habits of idleness. Poor Rip was at last reduced almost to despair; and his only alternative, to escape from the labor of the farm and clamor of his wife, was to take gun in hand and stroll away into the woods. Here he would sometimes seat himself at the foot of a tree, and share the contents of his wallet with Wolf, with whom he sympathized as a fellow-sufferer in persecution. "Poor Wolf," he would say, "thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it; but never mind, my lad, whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee!" Wolf would wag his tail, look wistfully in his master's face, and if dogs can feel pity I verily believe he reciprocated the sentiment with all his heart. In a long ramble of the kind on a fine autumnal day, Rip had unconsciously scrambled to one of the highest parts of the Kaatskill mountains. He was after his favorite sport of squirrel shooting, and the still solitudes had echoed and re-echoed with the reports of his gun. Panting and fatigued, he threw himself, late in the afternoon, on a green knoll, covered with mountain herbage, that crowned the brow of a precipice. From an opening between the trees he could overlook all the lower country for many a mile of rich woodland. He saw at a distance the lordly Hudson, far, far below him, moving on its silent but majestic course, with the reflection of a purple cloud, or the sail of a lagging bark, here and there sleeping on its glassy bosom, and at last losing itself in the blue highlands. On the other side he looked down into a deep mountain glen, wild, lonely, and shagged, the bottom filled with fragments from the impending cliffs, and scarcely lighted by the reflected rays of the setting sun. For some time Rip lay musing on this scene; evening was gradually advancing; the mountains began to throw their long blue shadows over the valleys; he saw that it would be dark long before he could reach the village, and he heaved a heavy sigh when he thought of encountering the terrors of Dame Van Winkle.

Washington Irving

(Rip Van Winkle) See esp: -[
Futurism: Before there was a future]- Annotated text: -[The Legend of Sleepy Hollow]- http://www.islandmm.com/vbs/ripv/index.html http://www.emints.org/ethemes/resources/S00000519.shtml http://www.positivewordsforparents.com/homeschool/id19.html http://www.timetravelreviews.com/shorts/rip_van_winkle.html Next: Le Guin. NOTES (this section only) [93] {Back to the TEXT} {Back to the TOP of this page}

Ursula K. Le Guin: The Left Hand of Darkness

NOTE: All pages refer to the paperback edition: "The Left Hand of Darkness", ISBN 0.441.47810.7 (Berkley publishing, New York, 1984) In this section: {
References} {Comments upon first reading} {Alien-ness} {Patriotism} {Time} {Truth & Ignornace} {Shifgrethor} {Thirteen!}

Left Hand: References

All page numbers refer to the paperback edition: "The Left Hand of Darkness", ISBN 0.441.47810.7 (Berkley publishing, New York, 1984)
[LEFT: Beyond Genre} "Beyond Genre: Fiction for Children and Aduts", by Mike Cadden, LCCN PS'3562.E42'Z615'2005, ISBN 0.415.97218.3 (Routledge, NY/London, 2005). (Series editor: Jack Zipes!) The "Hainish Series" (The "historiographic b/g" is given after the title "Planet of Exile" -- clan tale "Eye of the Heron" -- colonial imperialism "Rocannon's World" -- "Left Hand of Darkness" -- potential Eckumen world; first contact "The Dispossesed" -- Uniting two worlds Next: Alien-ness in "Left Hand"... {Back to the START of the Le Guin Section} {Back to the TOP of this page}

Alien-ness in "Left Hand"

Ostensibly, Left Hand does not deal with aliens. The idea (so far, in my first reading of the first 30 pages) is that these are "splinter" groups of the human race that have lost contact with each other. (Similar to Eric Frank Russell's short story "Freedom: I Want" (the planet of ----------- the "Gandhs" ??name??). Thus, the alien-ness is that of culture (need to cf/qv this with Dickinson's "Alien Way" -- ie, an acutal alien way of thinking). As to how this alien-ness is developed -- we'll see, we'll see.
For the present, at the time of its writng (1969) most people would have thought "bi-sexual" to be quite alien (I know that i did ;). But, more than that she presses this home: ... Such a man as Estraven must have guards about him somewhere, for assasination is a lively institution in Karhide, but I had seen no guard, heard none. We were alone. [Note 1] I was alone, with a stanger, inside the walls of a dark palace, in s atrange snow-changed city, in the heart of an Ice Age of an alien world. Everhthing I had said, tonight and ever since I came to Winter, suddenly apppeard to me as both stupid and incredible. How could I expect this man or any other to believe my tales about other worlds, other races, a vague benevolent government somewhere off in space? It was all non-sense. I had appeared in Harhid in a queer [2] kind of ship, and I differed physically from Gehenians in some respects; that wanted explaining. But my own explanations were preposterous. I did not, in that moment, beleive them myself. -- P. 18. Next: {Patriotism} NOTES (This section only) [1] This set-up only serves to create the sense of isolation for the next part. (This goes back to the H2G2 when the bar-keep "gets" the sense of far from home Ford Prefect is (some-where in the first chapter or 2). {Back to the TEXT} [2] I can *not* believe the choice of this word (queer) is arbitrary. Obviously to an enlightened individual (Mr. Ai) -- or so, i assume at this point in the novel (page 30, first reading) would hardly use the word in a derrogatory manner -- perhaps even having lost its meaning entirely over the years. The "Art of Being Human", short story where on a planet ??title?? the natives had a previous visitor and had warned them how primitive the human race was. The aliens are then ready when some 200 years later they are contacted by an official scout ship. And the visitors "read" the minds of the natives and find that if they say the wrong thing, the natives will instantly kill them. Finally, they are brought into a shrine to the earlier explorer (who helped them build proper sewers, and other benefits of civilisation). Finally the captain of the ship sez: Look I know you all think of this man as some sort of god, but look at him. He's just a man. Yes, in those days it took a certain kind of man to dare to set off into the cosmos alone to explore, those were rough and tumble days, but we are more civilised now. I'm sorry, but to us he's just an ordinary man -- nothing more!" (not an exact quote) At that point, the chieftain sez they are welcome and that the entire village welcomes the earther's as friends. The captain confesses that they had read their minds, hoping to make concact as peacfull as possible. And that they didn't know what it was that they were supposed to say that would trigger their own deaths. The chieftain speaks two words. The captain and the others are completely puxxled -- they had never even heard the words. They go off into the nights hand-in-hand. As (in the novel) the "camera pans" back, it reveals in the portrait a paining of an heroic figure in a space suit, helmit under his arm, white hair, and jet black skin. -- damn it! I wish I had still had that collection -- every story in there was *that* good. Such are the dreams and tales that we simple hippy poets try to use to heal the world and slowly lead us all into a better future. (night all) {Back to the TEXT} Next: Left hand: Patriotism. {Back to the START of the Le Guin Section} {Back to the TOP of this page}

Patriotism in "Left Hand"

...[Estraven speaking:] I can not ask for your trust any longer, either, having put you in jeopardy. I forgot what a king is, forgot that the king is his own eyes is Karhide, forgot what patriotism is and that he is, of necessity, the perfect patriot. Let me ask you this, Mr. Ai: do you know by your own experience, what patriotism is?" "No", I said, shaken by the force of that intense personality suddenly turning itself wholly upon me. "I don't think I do. If by patriotism you don't mean the love of one's home-land, for that I do know". "No, I don't mean love, when I say patriotism. I mean fear. The fear of the other. And its expressions are politcial, not poetical: hate, rivalry, aggression. It grows in us, that fear. It grows in us year by year. We've followed our road too far. And you, who come from a world that out-grew nations centuries ago, who hardly know what I'm talking about, who show us the new road --" He broke off. After a while he went on, in control again, cool polite: "It's because of fear that I refuse to urge your cause with the king, now. But not fear for myself, Mr. Ai. I'm not acting patriotically. There are, afer all, other nations on Gethen". -- P. 19. [3] I had no idea what he was driving at, but was sure that he did not mean what he seemed to mean. Of all the dark, obstructive, enigmatic souls I had met in this bleak city, his was the darkest. I would not play his labyrithine game. I made no reply. After a while he went on, rather cautiously, "If I've understood you, your Ekumen [galactic conclave] is devoted essentially to the general [page 19/20 break] interest of mankind. Now, for instance, the Orgota have experience in subordinating local interests to a general interest, while Karhide has almost none. And the Commenesals of Orgogreyn are mostly sane men, if un-intellegent, while the king of Karhide is not only insane but rather stupid". [4] -- Pp. 19-20. It was clear that Estraven had no loyalties at all. I said in faint disgust, "It must be difficult to serve him, if that's the case". I'm not sure that I've ever severd the king", said the king's prime minister. "Or ever intended to. I'm not anyone's servant. A man must cast his own shadow. ..." [Note that the "shadow" metaphor is mentioned again in the next chapter "The Place in the Blizzard"] A further example of what Estraven meant by "patriotims" (and amplication of how "wrong" Ai's reply to "What is patriotism?" was): [The sailor that rescued Estraven]: "It's not Sixth Hour yet", and yet answering another, "What affair of mine is that? The king exiled him, I'll follow the king's order, no lesser man's". So, against radio commands from Tibe's men ashore and against the arguments of his mate [I assume ships-mate, and not a "kemmer"], who feared retribution, that officer of the Kuseben Patrol took me across the Gulf of Charisune and set me ashore asafe in Shelt Port in Orgoreyn. Whether he did this *shifgrethor* against Tibe's men who would kill an un-armed man, or in kindness, I do not know. Nusuth "The admirable is in-explicable". -- P.78. {Back to SHIFGRETHOR discussion} Next: Time. NOTES (this section only) [3] Here we notice the way that the two views of patriotism are played out against each other. On the one hand Ai views it as loyalty to one's country -- that is united in a cultural, linguistic, and historical sense. Estraven (and presumably his fellow citizens) define it by their fear of the other. The irony here is that a person from a galactic empire (100 light years across) expresses an almost nostaglic sense of patriotism, while on this tiny little world the petty-minded natives can only see their own bickering and fighting for favor with the king, or at least not being attacked by other "nations". This goes back to the cultural homo-geneity of Karhide. The people vary in height, but not by much, their behaviour (so far, it seems) is governed by strict structures of socially acceptable practice. (This is made even more apparent in the next chapter "The Place Inside The Blizard" -- as cautionary tale (esp the interpretation of "incest" -- v. odd, will require some thought!). {Back to the TEXT} [4] At this point, I will refrain (slightly) from connecting the dialog to the politics of Nixon, Vietnam, etc. There could however be an imlication about democracy vs communism. If we read the "general interest" to be a "world-view" (which I think *is* valid), then the "local interest" goes back to nationalism -- and hence the almost rabbid isolationism of Karhide. This is made all the clear by the word "subordinating" when speacking about the Orgata. And Estraven use of "sane if un-intellegent" shows us his view (predjudice) against prefering the general to the local (indeed this point is hammered home in the next paragraph) -- Estraven puts his onwn, private (local) interests ahead of those of the public (general). Odd thought: The name Estraven "Est" "raven" hmm, wonder if there's a connection or intention there? "EST" could be the cult-like "E.S.T. training" and of course raven - a mysterious, black bird of note at least in Poe's poem of the same name. {Back to the TEXT} Next: "Time". {Back to the START of the Le Guin Section} {Back to the TOP of this page}


See also: {
Time & Truth} Again the problem of tim appears (most cogently, need re-read the whole thing from a "time" POV) in the section of the fastness; esp, P. 59. This goes back to the feel of the place (Rer/HanHanddara/Otherhord) as sort of a Buddhist temple -- trying to lose one self (the "un-trance"). This also goes back to "they always live in year zero". Very odd, as if "just by saying it is so, they can fix their time. (THis goes doubly back to the "illusion" of immortality that they preceive in Ai's "time-dilution" via lightspeed travel). hmmm Also, this goes to the idea of the foretellers as being sought after since they can tell the "people who live in year zero" about the FUTURE. (spooky music in background) P.61 - ref to taoism/i ching. Hmmm. What *is* she sayin??? (how old was she when she wrote this?? Hmm, 40 years old apparently! Near the bottom of P.70, Faxe (facsimille?) seems to be saying that the "foretelling" is not so much as asking a question and then looking into the future, but by asking the question and DETERMINING an answer, that they are CREATING that future. And then the thing about "not asking the wrong question". And the divinely mystical statement: "To exhibit the perfect use-less-ness of knowing the answer to the wrong question". That is, that as an example (another cautionary tale?) to those that would have the ENTIRE future spelled out. Thus, by exhibiting the idea of such "nothingness" ("Nusuth", bot of P.58) as i'm reading it (non-ado -- assuming i'm correct in that she's using the tao as part of (at least) some of the back-story of the novel). the foretellers "warn" kings and such about the useless of asking. (hmmm,?) Next: "Truth and Ignornace". {Back to the START of the Le Guin Section} {Back to the TOP of this page}

Truth & Ignorance

Pp.38&ff. The King asks "Very well. As your machine what makes a man a traitor". And of course gets back a nebulous (and if we look closely) *relativist* answer. This gives us the impression that "tratorship" is in the eyes of a *different* beholder; ie, mo man considers himself a traitor. (This is arguable, since s/he may be acting in *self* interest and not give a damn about either (any) side, dismissing (rationalising) their actions with "they're all a bunch of insane fools". Regardless, a telling moment occurs, "And if there were anything that the Ekumens ?eka-humans? hmmm wanted from us, they wouldn;t have sent you alone. It's a joke, a hoax. ALiens would be here by the thousdand". Ai: "But it doesn't take a thousand men to open a door, my lord". Arg: "It might to keep it open" Ai: The Ekumen will wait till you open it, sir. It will force nothing on you. I was sent alond, and remain alone, in order to make it impossible for you to fear me. "Fear you?", said the king, turning his shadow-scarred face, grinning, speaking loud and high. "But I do fear you, Envoy. I fear those who sent you. I fear liars, and I fear tricksters, and worst I fear the bitter truth." -- P.39-40. And then with the tale of the fore-tellers, it is clear that Lord Berosty (in his arogance of power?) seeks to know the day of his death, and the foretellers say on the 19th of some month (but not which month or year). His lover Herbor then un-selfishly goes to find out, and is told that Berosty will die after Herbor. This is "future knowledge" as not necessarily cautionary tale. I take the "moral" of the tale that in arrogance Berosty sets in motion his own doom -- obviously since he is obsessed with his on mortality, and to the extent that (if not already mad) he certainly goes mad there-after. Also, I take it since the tale ends "He lived a month thus" (P.46) that the time of the original event of Herbor was in fact on the 18th/19th, thus he lived a full (and exactly one) month longer than Herbor.
This being the second tale (the Place in the Blizzard being the first), Le Guin seems to be making a special "thing" out of time. This coupled with the light-speed thingie, as well as the "simultaneity" communicator. These are "sort of" in defiance of relativity. I'm not sure if this is just a "plot element" (ie, "History has known many liars, Kopernicus, Ralph the Liar, Einstein" ;) or is supposed to be a future break-thru as necessary element for space travel. On the other hand, I will be "watching" for other references to time! (what-ever that is!) {Back to TIME} *** NOT SURE where this next thing goes (hmmm, should i provide a "glossary" -- prob one out on the net! ** VOCAB: Investigaor vs Mobile; note the similarity of mobile to "missionary" in "spreading the word" or the "galactic union".


The word "shifgrether" ??? Ref'd earlier: {
Estraven's escape} Yegey: "I waive shifgrethor". P. 84.


Refered to variously (odd) Yegey: "I've voted thirteen times now against pressing the Sinoth Valley dispute. -- P.85 CLearly (to me) the border dispute between Karhide and Orgoreyn (Soviet Union) is parallel to US vs Russia. There's even a reference (P.82) "Yegey (Yevgenye in Russian) looking just as he looked at the Reception of the *Archipelegan* Ambassador in the Ceremmonial Hall of the Plaace of Erhenrang seven month before". -P.82. SITH ref (prob a coinkydink) -- Yegey poured out another dram around of lifewater. Orgota nobelmen drink that precious fire, brought 5000 miles over the foggy seas from Sith, as if it were beer" --P.85. The wonder of "first contact" P.86&ff -- beauty, 'tis beauty squared that this wondrous poetess has seen fit to bestow upon our world. And here I sit, almost half a century in the future and her words come to me. Guide me, oh poetess! Oh, muses! (it is enough to drive me insane -- providing of course i'm not in for it already!) Dothe (hysterical strength; note "hyster" == "fem"), P.59 (bottom), and then when the disappearance of kings P. 69, and hence Ai's *** LINK/NOVE to patriotism section. mis-understanding of patriotism. to not know is to know, etc. P.70-71. Pronoun usage: Pp.94-95. Again "war as purely masculine" thing: Pp.48 (bottom), P.49 (patriotism as well) Pp.95-96 War (contemplated, meeting with Yegey & Obsule), P.84 (bottom) to P.85


The word "shifgrether" ??? Ref'd earlier: {
Estraven's escape}


Anyway, at the "Fastness"P.56, Ai admits "I'm exceedingly ignorant", to which the other replies in great admiration, "I've lived here 3 years, but haven't acquire enough ignornace to be worth mentioning". Hmmm, i take this back to the King fearing "the biter truths". This smacks of ignorance is bliss (or at the very least ignorance *as* bliss). Thus, as we grow wiser (more knowledgible) we realise just how much we don't know. Thus, to be ignorant (or at least "properly so") *would* be a sign of great wisdom, and hence achievement. This goes back to the idea of a "specialist" who knows more and more about less and less. Next: Lem, natch! {Back to the START of the Le Guin Section} {Back to the TOP of this page}

Stanislov Lem

In this section: {
The Cyberiad} (Robot Stories) {SOlaris}

Lem: Cyberiad

This section contains NO SPOILERS; but, sub-sections below DO. This beautiful "fair tales of the future" book concerns a far future (or a different universe?) where-in the inhabitants (and main protagonists) are two inventor robots that are in constant competition with each other. Lem (like Douglas Adams) has that fanciful turn of phrase and plot of a poet that takes us on a roller coaster ride of ideas. One of the more delightful episodes comes when one inventor tries to create a computer that can create poetry to "show" the other what a brill inventor he is. As he progresses to figure out how to program the robot, Lem tells us that he first reads works on language theory, and technical matters; but, as he becomes bored with that, he turns to works on poetry, the aesthetics, etc. And then when he becomes bored with that, he switches back to the technical matters. This simple matter has much gainstayed me in my own works - as i get tired of working on the "Maths Appreciation", then i switch (for example ;) to the on-going text on "Science Fiction as Literature", and by odd thoughts take up writing about the author of "Solaris" and his Polish book entitled "Robot Stories". To discuss:

making nothing

SPOILERS in this sub-section.

the conglomerated giant

NO SPOILERS, this sub-section ONLY.
The Priate and the Maxwell's Demon of the Second kind. the fake human // to John Savage Next: Niven & Pournell.

Niven & Pournelle

The Mote in God's Eye & The Gripping Hand.

And they walked like men... Clifford D. Simak

While many other SF writers told the "cute story" (which always sells - not that i dont' enjoy taking one of the standard "20 plots" and plumping it down into the middle of a trans-atlantic er, ahm trans-galactic voyage on a luxury star-liner and a mysterious death that can only mean that the treasure map has been stolenn.... but. certain other authors have *all*ways* pointed out the slight problems with society (others that springs readily to mind is of course Ursula K. Le Guin and Philip K. Dick). Here then (with slight spoilers) is... An extract... "Auk House" From "Stellar #3" edited by Judy-Lynn DelRey pbd edition: Ballentine, 1977 ISBN0.345.25152.0 A painter/artist suddenly finds himself transported to a remote mysterious house (later to be called "Auk House" by "the keepers"). Meanswhile life is pleasant here, and he dines with one of the other *forced* guests, a philosophical older man (methinks the writer in us all???) As we join Latimer and the professor (Jonathon) are discussing why they might have been brought there and what the "keepers" who *manage* the place might have as their motivations. It is (once again) late evening as the curtain rises... [written about 1977] BEGIN BLOCK QUOTE [P. 199] [Latimer] "You mean only people without strong ties were picked?" "No, I dought that would have been the case. Perhaps among the kind of people who are here, there is no tendency to develop such strong ties." L: Tell me what kind of people. You told me you are a philosopher and I know some of the others. WHat about Underwood? J: A Playwrigth. And a rather successful one before he came here. L: Charlie? Jane? J: Charlie is a cartoonist, Jane an essayist. L: Essayist? J: yes, high social consciousness. She wrote rather telling articles for some of the so-called little magazines, even a few for more prestigious publications. Charlie was big in the Middle West. Worked for a small daily, but his cartoons were widely reprinted. he was building a reputation and probably would have been moving on to more important fields. L: Then we're not all from around here. Not all from New England. J: No. Some of us, of course. Myself and you. The others are from other parts of the country. L: All of us from what can be roughly called the arts. And from a wide area. How in the world they -- whoever they may be -- have managed to lure all these people to this house? Because I gather we had to come ourselves that none of us was seized and brought here. J: I think you are right. I can't imagine how it was managed. Psychological management of some sort, I would assume, but I have no idea how it might be done. L: You say you are a philosopher. Does that mean you taught philosophy? J: I did at one time. But it was not a satisfactory job. Teaching those old dead philosophies to a group of youngsters who paid but slight attention was no bargain, I can tell you. Although, I sholdn't blame them, I suppose. Philosophy today is largely dead. It's primitive, [Page 200] J: outdated, the most of it. What we need is a new philosophy that will enable us to cope with the present world. L: And you are writing such a philosophy? J: Writing at it. I find that as time goes on, I get less and less done. I havent' the drive any longer. THis life of ease, I suppose. SOmething's gone out of me. The anger, maybe. Maybe the loss of contact with the world I knew. No longer exposed to the world's conditions, I have lost the feel for it. I don't feel the need of protest, I've lost my sens of outrage, and the need for a new philosophy has become remote. L: This business about the staff. You say that from time to time it changes. J: It may be fairly simple to explain. I told you that we watch, but we can't have a water posted all the time. The staff, on the other hand, can keep track of us. Old staff members leave, others come in when we are somewhere else. L: And supplies. they have to bring in supplies. That would not be as simple. J: (chucling) You've really got your teeth into this. L: I'm interested, dammit. There are questions about how the operation works and I want to know. how about the basement? Tunnels, maybe. Could they bring in staff and supplies through tnnels in the basement? I know that sounds cloak-and-dagger but ... J: I suppose they could. If they did, we'd never know. The basement is used to store supplies and we're not welcome there. One of the staff, a burly brute who is deaf-mute, or pretends to be, has charge of the basement. He lives down there, eats and sleeps down here, takes care of the supplies. L: It could be possible then. J: Yes. It could be possible. .... ...(the next night).... [P. 206] L: Last night, you told me we needed a new philosophy, that the old ones were no longer valid. J: That I did. We are faced today with a managed society. We live by restrictive rules, we have been reducd to numbers -- our Social Security numbers, our Internal Revenue Service numbers, the numbers on our credit cards, on our checking and savings accounts, on any number of things. We are being de-humanised and, in most cases, willingly, because this numbers game may seem to make life easier, but most often because no one wants to bother to make a fuss about it. We have come to believe that a man who makes a fuss is anti-social. We are a flock of senseles chickens, fluttering and scurrying, cackling and squawking, but being shooed along in the way that others want us to go. The advertising agencies tell us what buy, the public relations people tell us what to think, and even knowning this, we do not resent it. We sometimes damn the government when we work up the courage to damn anyone at all. But I am certain it is not the government we should be damning, but, rather, the world's business managers. We have seen the reise of multi-national complexes that owe no loyalty to any government, that think and plan in global terms, that view the human populatins as a joint labor corps/consumer group, some of which also may have inventment potential. This is a threat, as I see it, against human free will and human dignity, and we need a philosophical appraoch that will enable us to deal with it. L: And if you should write this philosophy, [P. 207] L: it would pose a potential threat against the managers. J: Not at first. Perhapse never. but it might have some influence over the years. It might start a trend of thinking. To break the grip the managers now hold would rquire sometihng like a social revolutionj... L: These men, these managers you are talking about -- they would be cautious men, would they not, far-seeing man? They would take no chances. They'd have too much at stake to take any chance at all. J: You aren't saying... L: Yes, I think I am. It is, at least, a thought. J: I have thought of it myself, but rejected it because I couldn't trust myself. It follows my bias too closely. And it doesn't make sense. If there were people they wanted to get out of the way, there'd be other ways to do it. L: Not as safely. Here there is no way we could be found. Daed, we would be found... J: I wasn't thinking of killing. L: Oh, well, it was only a thought. Another guess. END BLOCK QUOTE NEXT:
Cordwainer Smith. {Back to the TOP of this page}

Cordwainer Smith

See also: [
Paul Linebarger (MAC: sf writers)] The Instrumentality of man (series/future history)

Under People

See also: {
NEXT: Aldris: "Cryptozoic". {Back to the TOP of this page}

Robert Louis Stevenson

Futurism: Before there was a future]- "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" published in 1886 Also, compare this with the publication of Mary Shelly's "Frankenstein - Or the Modern Prometheus" (1918) and her ideas that the difference between life and death would be eroded by the march of science. And even more important that even the scientist involved was powerless to control his creation. We could take this as a cautionary tale of how the fruits of the industrial revolution itself were of a "mixed nature" - one only has to look at paintings of the time of SMOKE stacks spoling the pristine country-side to see the reflection of this first falling away of the Age of Romance's love affair "progress". Stevenson's ??? text ??? Among Freud's most important (and earliest) publications are: Studies on Hysteria (with Josef Breuer) (Studien über Hysterie, 1895) The Interpretation of Dreams (Die Traumdeutung, 1899 [1900]) The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens, 1901) Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie, 1905) -- src: -[wikipedia]- Note that his "3 essays on sexuality" were published in 1905, the same year as Einstein's paper on Relativity. To the prim and proper "best of all possible *industrial* worlds, Freud's ideas must have come like a bombshell. Not only had Darwin told us that we were decended from "lower" forms, and Shelly and Stevenson had warned us of the possible mis-uses of science and its effect on man - now Freud said that we carried "the mindless savage" within each of us, and it needed no potions or scientific trickery to bring it out.

Jonathon Swift

(Gulliver's Travels) See esp: -[
Futurism: Before there was a future]-

Jules Verne

Futurism: Before there was a future]-

H.G. Wells

Futurism: Before there was a future]- In this section: {Stuff, bio, etc} {The Time Machine} In addition to being classically trained in the sciences (as well as literature and writing), Herbert George was something of a mis-fit from the start. When he was 7, he broke his leg -[wiki: H.G. Wells]- and (so the story goes) forced him to begin to do a bit of reading, later the same year he entered schoold which was unfortunately rather mundane in its curricuulum. After a series of un-rewarding tries at being a tradesman (draperies), and as a pharmacy assistant, and as an "unsatifactory" teacher, he finally ended up: "he won a scholarship to the Normal School of Science (later the Royal College of Science, now part of Imperial College London) in London, studying biology under T. H. Huxley. " -- wiki, loc cit. And of course the rest "is/was/will-always-be 'history'"...


As for utopia (again from the wiki article) -[Wells' Politics]- (down loaded on 2008.01.27 at 6:08 PCT) BEGIN BLOCK QUOTE His most consistent political ideal was the World State. He stated in his autobiography that from 1900 onward he considered a world-state inevitable. The details of this state varied but in general it would be a planned society that would advance science, end nationalism, and allow people to advance solely by merit rather than birth. He also was consistent [sic; insistent??] that it must not be a democracy. He stated that in the same period he came to realise a world-state was inevitable, he realised that parliamentary democracy as then practised was insufficient. Wells remained fairly consistent in rejection of a world-state being a parliamentary democracy and therefore during his work on the United Nations Charter he opposed any mention of democracy. He feared that the average citizen could never be educated or aware enough to decide the major issues of the world. Therefore he favoured the vote be limited to scientists, organisers, engineers, and others of merit. At the same time he strongly believed citizens should have as much freedom as they could without consequently restricting the freedom of others. These values came under increasing criticism from the 1920s and afterwards.[11] Local Note #11: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H._G._Wells#_note-9 "An Experiment in Autobiography 556". Also chapter four of Future as Nightmare: H. G. Wells and the Anti-Utopians by Mark Robert Hillegas.

The Time Machine

There are TWO important things to note: 1) Well's idea of time travel (1895; pub'd) preceeded Einstein's discovery (1905; pub'd) by some ten years. 2) Ever since the publications of the "new" geoemetries (such as Lobchevski's negatively curved space; 1826, pub'd 1840; Engl transl. 1891) the idea of a FOURTH DIMENSION had been "much in the air". In fact it became quite the rage around the turn of the 1899/1900c. Thus, this idea of time being a fourth dimension was not all together that new. In fact, Wells (in the novel) does NOT metnion such dimensionality. His view of time (in my oppinion) is that time is a flowing substance or thing. The time machine achieves its motion by the creation of friction against the normal flow of time. *** need to look this back up *** Regardless, the story (again ref to Ms. Sobchak's book) involves time travel in the SAME way that Vernes involved space travel. The point here is that where-as Wells wanted to say something about social evolution (as well as social de-evolution) and chose time as the venue can be //'d to Nemo's view of the world as being a bunch of haves and have nots and the one's wot have aren't so nice as it turns out... START AGAIN Must get a copy of Verne's greates judgment against the glories of the "new age" -- captain of the air. Odd how none of their ideas of a social nature and the sicknesses of society quite make it into the films, eh??? -- tired, night all; frank.