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American History (1900-2000)

Reference Links

www.justiz.bayern.de (text & guide) Cornell EDU links Back to Am-History: 1900 - 2000 Back to the PDE Return to the m-a-c page Back to the TOP of this page


As you will see von Papen was acquitted. He was originally to be co-chancelor to keep the young upstart Hitler in check. (This was still when Hindenberg was still president). Of the lot of them, I think he was the least guilty -- although as an Injun, I always say there is more than an enough blood to go around to cover all of our hands; (sins of commission or of omission). Many times throught out (after Hitler came to power) there *were* times that the Army generals could have stopped him -- they were the only ones that could. Despite the constant threat of the SA (the gang of thugs (like Musolini's thugs) that first brought hitler to power) and the SS -- the dreaded secret police that only gained more and more powers as the years went on. Despite this, the Generals alone could have stopped him. Finally, as I always say: The first country that lost lives in the fight against Hitler was Germany herself. And after a while, terror and a determination to remain *silent* did the rest and opposisition quickly evaporated. In a recent e-mail to a friend of mine (concerning the near-margin by which a new "Hitler"
Jean-Marie Le Pen narrowly was defeated in France), I said, "Thank heaven for Hitler, otherwise Le Pen might have gotten in." (Le Pen's anti-semitism now focuses on the politically correct target of "those Arabs"). We must never forget the depths to which humanity can sink. We must never forget how "patriotism" and "loyalty" (even to beliefs and borders) can "urge" us ever so gently down the path which we must never tread again. And do not think for a SINGLE moment that what went on in Germany in 1933 couldn't happen anywhere else -- it already has, and it will again unless we all "learn from the mistakes of history". As Upton Sinclair put it in the title of his book "It Can't Happen Here". (He saw a form of facism rising in America, based on Religious righteousness). And never forget the lessons of "hubris" (pride) that the Ancient Greeks teach us. It is only be remembering Shiller's moving words and Beethoven's moving music: All men are brothers. Or as humble Dr. Einstein put it: All men are my equals in that I can learn from them. (I'm sure that he meant that about women type folk as well), -- As always, with peace and love to all, Pizo, Winter 2002, Dallas on a certain small blue-green world with hope for the new year.

Recommended reading

Rise & Fall of the Third Reicht. William Shirer's masterpiece. Also, his "A Berlin Diary" and "A Berlin Diary Concluded" are excellent as well. If you have time to read only one book, I highly recommend John Toland's "Adolf Hitler" which tells most of the morbid story in chronixological order. Shirer's early chapters give more details of of the "how" of Hitler's rise, Tolands give more as to nature of the madman. Back to Am-History: 1900 - 2000 Back to the PDE Return to the m-a-c page Back to the TOP of this page


(per Shirer's "A Berlin Diary Concluded") At first the Nazi defendents tried to weasel out of everything (or rather did their lawyers; trying to get the case dismissed outright). Then they had to enter their plea of guilty or not-guilty (they all replied Not Guilty). Then comes a curious moment; Rudolff Hess had been feigning memory loss. After becoming disgusted with his lawyer's antics to get him off, he finally made an open statement in court that he had feigned memory loss due to other mental problems, but that he now renounced these views and was ready to stand trial. (Hess was the #2/#3 man under Hitler; at the very last he flew to England (without Hitler's knowledge) to try one last time to prevent the total destruction of Germany.
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